Active Ingredient: Norfloxacin
The excluded citations were independently assessed by a second reviewer LG and reinstated in case of disagreement. Both reviewers independently evaluated the full text of the included articles.
In accordance with existing quality checklists, 18—20 we assessed the method of randomization, concealment of treatment allocation, blinding, completeness of outcome data, baseline comparability and adherence to study medication.
Discordant scores were resolved through consensus. Network construction For each of the five outcomes, we connected the treatment arms from the RCTs using their direct comparisons, yielding a network structure.
Network meta-analysis makes it possible to compare all treatments within such a network structure with each other. To facilitate the formation of a network, we combined different regimens of the same antibiotic to become a single treatment arm in the network structure.
Data extraction For each trial arm, one reviewer BJK extracted the number of patients for the five outcomes in contingency tables. Data were extracted for two different subpopulations: i all patients irrespective of the baseline culture according to daily practice and ii patients with a positive urine culture at baseline to determine the antibiotic effect in bacteriologically proven UTI.
For women with acute, uncomplicated inflammation of the bladder, the usual duration of treatment is a 3 day course of this medicine with the recommended dose. In the treatment of urinary tract infections, adults will generally need to use this medicine for 7-10 days.
In chronic inflammation of the prostate the usual duration of treatment is 4 weeks.
The symptoms of urinary tract infection, such as a burning sensation experienced during passing water, pain, and fever, will generally disappear within 1-2 days.
However, the treatment course with this medicine should be continued for up to 12 weeks in chronic relapsing urinary tract infections.
If you take more Norfloxacin 400 mg than you should If you have taken a double dose, you only need to contact your doctor if side effects occur. Continue taking your medicine regularly as prescribed.
If you have taken more than a double dose by mistake, contact your doctor immediately. If you forget to take Norfloxacin 400 mg Do not take a double dose to make up for a forgotten tablet, just carry on with the next one as normal.
If you stop taking Norfloxacin 400 mg It is important that you complete the course of treatment, even if you begin to feel better after a few days.
It is caused by specific mutations in gyrase and topoisomerase IV that weaken interactions between quinolones and these enzymes.Abstract Background The efficacies and adverse effects of different antibiotics for uncomplicated urinary tract infections UTIs have been studied by standard meta-analytic methods using pairwise direct comparisons of antimicrobial treatments: the effects of one treatment are compared to those of either another treatment or placebo.
Plasmid-mediated resistance results from extrachromosomal elements that encode proteins that disrupt quinolone—enzyme interactions, alter drug metabolism, or increase quinolone efflux.
Chromosome-mediated resistance results from the underexpression of porins or the overexpression of cellular efflux pumps, both of which decrease cellular concentrations of quinolones.
Finally, this review will discuss recent advancements in our understanding of how quinolones interact with gyrase and topoisomerase IV and how mutations in these enzymes cause resistance.
These last findings suggest approaches to designing new drugs that display improved activity against resistant strains. Over a period of a few decades, quinolones have transformed from a small and unimportant class of drugs used primarily to treat urinary tract infections to some of the most commonly prescribed antibacterials in the world.
Unfortunately, quinolone usage is threatened by the rising occurrence of resistance, which has been observed in every species that is treated by this drug class. Consequently, the human type II enzymes function as homodimers.
However, the similarity of these enzymes presents a confounding issue for designing quinolone-like drugs that overcome bacterial drug resistance.