Active Ingredient: Amoxicillin
The current overuse of alternative, broad-based antibiotics contributes to the development of drug-resistant bacteria including Clostridioides difficile, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, which can cause life-threatening infections and can spread to other patients.
The inability to give penicillin to patients labeled as allergic in the hospital results in a higher incidence of drug-resistant infections, a higher chance of surgical site infections and antibiotic treatment failures, longer hospital stays and higher costs, Stone said.
They also frequently report symptoms that are inconsistent with an allergy, or say they avoid penicillin because a relative had a reaction. They also focus on those who are less likely to be allergic because of the passage of time.
Hence, the health ministries of many countries, especially developing nations, struggle to prevent the circulation of substandard and counterfeit medicines.
A combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was introduced in the United Kingdom in 1981 as Augmentin and eventually became the treatment of choice for many infections.
Amoxicillin—clavulanic acid also has proven more effective for the eradication of H. Several of these studies suggest that antibiotics are deliberately counterfeited in some cases but unintentionally degraded in others.
Based on previous studies in Cambodia, the Cambodian Ministry of Health MoH, and Kanazawa University decided to conduct a collaborative study of the quality of amoxicillin—clavulanic acid in the private pharmaceutical market under tropical conditions in a developing country.
Of the various formulations of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, only tablets appear on the essential medicine list of Cambodia. Because this study did not involve human subjects, ethical clearance was not sought.
However, a memorandum of understanding was signed by the Cambodian MoH before commencement. Equal numbers of samples were collected from urban and rural areas. Seven districts of the capital Phnom Penh were selected to represent urban areas, and three provinces Kandal, Takeo, and Kampong Speu were selected to represent rural areas.
The locations were selected after taking into account population density, the number of outlets, and budgetary limitations.